Baseball's steroid scandals
A new book says that Alex Rodriguez used steroids as early as high school, and that he continued to use HGH after joining the Yankees.
Earlier, it was revealed that Rodriguez was among 104 players who tested positive in what was supposed to be an anonymous and non-disciplinary steroids survey in 2003. He admitted it was true, but said that while he used PEDs while a member of the Texas Rangers he never did so as a New York Yankee.
In 2013 A-Rod came under immense scruitiny for his involvement with the Biogenesis investigation. Claims were made that Rodriguez not only used performance enhancing drugs, but also encouraged others to do so and tampered with the investigation. He was suspended for 211 regular season games for his involvement.
After being named the National League MVP in 2011, Ryan Braun tested positive for performance enchancing drugs in 2012. Braun blamed the positive test on faulty testing and an arbitrator overturned the results citing that the urine sample had been improperly handled.
In 2013 Braun was handed a 65-game suspension for his alleged involvement in the Biogenesis clinic. He received a 50-game suspension for violating the league's drug policy and an additional 15-game suspension for violating the league's basic agreement. The detrimental conduct charge came as a result of Braun alleging that the league's drug testing program was "fatally flawed."
In 2013 Nelson Cruz was named as one of the players connected to the Biogenesis clinic. Major League Baseball suspended Cruz for 50 games. As a result of the scandal Cruz reportedly left his agents at ACES, an agency that represented other players involved, in favor of Adam Katz.
Melky Cabrera was first linked to PED use in 2012 when he was suspended by MLB for 50 games having tested positive for testosterone use.
In 2013 Cabrera was listed as one of the players linked to the Biogenesis clinic. However, because he already served a 50-game suspension he did not receive further punishment.
The founder of Biogenesis anti-aging clinic, Anthony Bosch struck a deal with the MLB and handed over his clinic's records to Major League Baseball. Biogenesis and Bosch's previous clinic, Biochem, reportedly supplied banned substances including performance enhanching drugs to at least 20 Major League players.
The federal government is investigating claims that Bosch not only sold cotrolled substances to baseball players and other professional athletes, but to high school athletes as well.
Bartolo Colon was first implicated for using PEDs in 2012 when the league handed him a 50-game suspension for heightened testosterone levels.
In 2013, Colon's name was linked to the Biogenesis clinic, but he will not receive further punishment having already served a suspension that ran into the 2013 season.
Francisco Cervelli was among the players implicated in the Biogenesis investigation in 2013. Cervalli was issued a 50-game suspension.
Cesar Puello has never played in the majors, but was still issued a 50-game suspension like other players involved in the Biogenesis scandal.
Jhonny Perlata was another player linked to Biogenesis in 2013, but the shortstop denied any connection. Major League Baseball found the evidence conclusive enough and suspended Perlata for 50 games.
Once a promising outfield prospect, Martinez has struggled to stay healthy and was recently sent back to down to Triple-A. Martinez was one of the first players linked to Biogenesis. The league suspended Martinez for 50 games.
After being sent down to Triple-A, Jesus Montero's name was listed as one of the players involved in the Biogenesis scandal. Major League Baseball suspended Montero for 50 games.
Everth Cabrera is another player implicated in the Biogenesis investigation. Cabrera said he was "surprised" and "dissapointed" that his name was on the list of connected players. The shortstop was issued a 50-game suspension as a result.
2013 was not a good year for Jordan Norberto. In February of 2013 Norberto was linked to the Biogenesis clinic, by May of 2013 he was released by the Oakland A's and in August he was issued a 50-game suspension by Major League Baseball.
Fautino De Los Santos
Like Jordan Norberto, Fautino De Los Santos had a bad year in 2013. In February he was connected to the Biogenesis clinic, in May, the Padres released him and in August he was suspended for 50-games.
In November of 2012 Yasmani Grandal received a suspension that kept him from the first 50 games of the 2013 season.
In 2013 he was listed as one of the players involved with Biogenesis, but will not be dealt any additional punishment.
Jordany Valdespin was suspended for 50 games by Major League Baseball as a result of his involvement with the Biogenesis clinic.
Antonio Bastardo was among the 12 players suspended by Major League Baseball on August 5, 2013 after being linked to the Biogenesis clinic. Bastardo was issued a 50-game suspension.
Sergio Escalano was suspended for 50 games after being linked to the Biogenesis clinic in 2013.
Marlon Byrd has gynecomastia, englarged breast tissue. A confition that can be cause by a natural change in the body's chemical balance or by changed induced by steroid use. In 2012 Byrd received a 50-game suspension after testing positive for tamoxifen, a substance banned by Major League Baseball. Byrd claims that he took a medication called Nolvadex, which he did not know contained tamoxifen, to treat his gynecomastia after surgery failed to do so.
First suspended in 2006 for 50 games, Guillermo Mota tested positive for a second time in 2012. Mota tested positive for Clenbuterol and as a second time offender was suspended for 100 games.
According to a New York Times report on July 30, 2009, David Ortiz tested positive for steroids back in 2003. Ortiz, along with former teammate Manny Ramirez were reportedly on a list of about 100 major league players that recorded positive tests back in 2003.
In 2012 Freddy Galvis was handed a 50-game suspension after testing positive for Clostebol. Galvis denied knowingly taking any performance enhancing drugs.
Mike Jacobs was playing with the Rockies Triple-A affiliate in Colorado Springs when he tested positive for HGH. Jacobs played with the Mets, Marlins and Royals before joining the Rockies organization and being served a 50-game suspension in 2011.
Ronny Paulino received a 50-game suspension in 2010 after testing positive for PEDs. The catcher said that he took a diet pill in order to control his weight and only later learned that it was banned by the MLB.
After years of denial, McGwire finally admitted using steroids on January 11, 2010. "I wish I had never touched steroids," McGwire said in a statement. "It was foolish and it was a mistake. I truly apologize. Looking back, I wish I had never played during the steroid era." He also admitted he used steroids when he broke baseball's home run record in 1998, hitting 70 home runs.
According to a New York Times report on June 16, 2009, Sammy Sosa tested positive for steroids in 2003. After not being able to catch on with any teams this season, Sosa recently decided to retire, saying, "I will calmly wait for my induction to the Baseball Hall of Fame. Don't I have the numbers to be inducted?" Although he finishes his career with 609 home runs, with this report, the Hall may not be very likely.
Never previously implicated in the steroid scandal, Manny Ramirez was suspended 50 games on May 7, 2009 after a positive drug test. He blamed the results on a medication prescribed by a doctor.
On July 30, 2009 the New York Times reported that Ramirez had also tested positive for PED use in 2003.
In 2011 Ramirez announced he would be retiring. Major League Baseball released a statement that Ramirez had chosen to retire rather than comply with the leagues Joint Drug Prevention and Treatment Program's process. Later that year Ramirez expressed a desire to play in the Dominican Winter League. However, because the Dominican League is affiliated with the MLB, the commisioner's office issued a statement that Ramirez would need to serve his mandated suspension before he could be eligible to play.
By the end of 2011 Ramirez had filed paperwork to be reinstated by Major League Baseball. A deal was reached that allowed Ramirez to serve a 50-game suspension in place of the 100-game suspension that he was originally dealt.
Ramirez has continued to try and make a comeback, but has struggled. In 2012 he signed a minor legue contract with Oakland, but by June of that year was released. he then played in the Dominican Professional Baseball League during the 2012-13 offseason. In 2013 he signed with the Texas Rangers and played for their Triple-A affiliate in Round Rock.
In 2010 Edinson Volquez received a 50-game suspension after testing positive for a male fertility drug. While the drug itself is not a steroid, it is used by athletes to counteract the effects of steroids on testosterone levels and is therefore banned by Major League Baseball. Volquez admitted to using the drug as a means to help him and his wife start a family.
Implicated in September of 2005 by Rafael Palmeiro, a known steroid user, Miguel Tejada immediately denied the accusation. He was exonerated by the Health Policy Advisory Committee just a short time later, but that did not dispel the questions.
José Canseco and Jason Grimsley have also alleged that Tejada used steroids.
Tejada's name was included in the Mitchell Report, which stated that Tejada had received $1,500 worth of steroids.
In 2009 Tejada pleaded guilty to misleading congress. He initially faced up to one year in prison and a $100,000 fine, but the judge issued a year of probation, 100 hours of community service and $5,000 fine instead. During the court proceedings Tejada acknowledged that he had bought HGH while playing for Oakland, but immediately threw them out without ever using them.
Barry Bonds has a record-setting seven MVP awards, is a 14-time All-Star and holds both the all-time home run record (with 762) and the single-season HR record (with 73). Still, he was plagued by allegations and investigations for much of the latter part of his career.
His biggest troubles began in 2003 when his trainer, Greg Anderson, was charged with supplying anabolic steroids to athletes. Bonds admitted he had used clear and cream substances from Anderson but said he believed them to be flaxseed oil and a rubbing balm for arthritis.
In 2006 a book called "Game of Shadows" was released which alleges that Bonds used a substance called stanozolol in addition to several other steroids.
In August of 2007 Bonds hit his 756th home run, surpassing Hank Aaron for the most all time. By September of that year Bonds had hit his final home run. He remains the all-time home run leader with 762 career homers. Some people argue that his record should be invalidated because of Bonds' steroid use.
On Nov. 15, 2007, Bonds was indicted on perjury and obstruction of justice charges for his testimony during the BALCO investigation.
In 2011 Bonds was convicted of obstruction of justice. However, an appeal to the decision is still pending.
Senator George Mitchell
A baseball fan and one-time front office director for the Boston Red Sox, Senator George Mitchell was chosen by MLB Commissioner Bud Selig to investigate performance-enhancing drug use by baseball players. His 409-page report was released on Dec. 13, 2007. It implicated 89 former and current players.
After pleading guilty to money laundering and illegal distribution of anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, Clenbuterol, amphetamines and other drugs, Kirk Radomski faced a maximum sentence of 25 years in prison and a $500,000 fine. Instead, he cooperated with the federal government and received five years probation and had to pay just $18,575. Radomski's allegations fueled much of the Mitchell Report.
A former college baseball player who knew he would never be able to make it in the pros, Greg Anderson instead became a trainer. He reportedly began supplying Barry Bonds with performance-enhancing drugs as early as 1998.
In 2005, Anderson pled guilty to conspiracy to distribute steroids and to money laundering and was sentenced to three months in prison and three months home confinement. In 2006, he was found in contempt of court after refusing to testify during a grand jury hearing investigating perjury charges against Bonds. He was held in jail for 25 days, released, again found in contempt and imprisoned once more, this time for around 15 months. Anderson was finally released just hours after Bonds was indicted by a federal grand jury on four counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice.
Jose Canseco's 2005 book "Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant 'Roids, Smash Hits & How Baseball Got Big" fueled the fire over steroid use in the league. He claimed that up to 85 percent of major league players took steroids and identified many players as users.
He admitted to his own steroid use in grand jury testimony during the BALCO investigations.
When Roger Clemens' name was first tied to steroid use by Jose Canseco, the pitcher shrugged it off. When allegations continued to be made -- including those by pitchers Jason Grimsley and good friend Andy Pettitte -- scrutiny increased on the famed player.
Due to claims by former Yankees trainer Brian McNamee, Clemens took up a major part of the Mitchell Report. His name was mentioned a total of 82 times. Clemens steadfastly denied using steroids, releasing evaluations of his year-to-year performances and appearing before a Congressional committee.
After being investigated for perjury, Clemens was acquited of all charges in 2012.
Looking for proof he was distributing HGH and steroids, federal officials raided Jason Grimsley's home in 2006. This wasn't the first time Grimsley had been tied with performance-enhancing substances, as he had failed a drug test in 2003 and had confessed to using HGH and steroids as early as 1998 to help rehab from a shoulder injury. After starting to use, his ERA dropped by a run and his salary skyrocketed.
Following the raid, Grimsley cooperated with federal investigators and named players he knew to be drug users.
Because of his admitted violation, if Grimsley ever signs a contract with a major league team and is placed on a 40-man roster, he immediately will be suspended 50 games.
In 2002, one year after retiring from baseball, Ken Caminiti admitted to a reporter that he had used steroids. He revealed that he began using performance-enhancing drugs in 1996, the year he was named the National League MVP, and had continued for several seasons after that. It marked the first time a professional baseball player had publicly admitted his steroid use and contributed to the fervor over the subsequent steroids scandal that swept through the baseball world.
Caminiti died of a drug overdose-induced heart attack on Oct. 10, 2004. He had struggled with alcohol and cocaine abuse for a long time.
In 2003, Jason Giambi was named as one of the players to whom Greg Anderson gave steroids. He spoke before a grand jury, and while that testimony was not officially released, leaks revealed that Giambi had admitted to steroid use during the offseasons from 2001 to 2003. Giambi made an official apology to the public and urged others to come clean as well.
Giambi's younger brother, Jeremy Giambi, also admitted to using steroids. Both were named in the Mitchell Report.
Andy Pettitte was connected to steroids in 2006 when his name was reportedly included in an affidavit by former teammate Jason Grimsley. While it was later revealed that Grimsley did not finger Pettitte, the lefty was in the Mitchell Report. Brian McNamee, a former Yankees trainer, said he injected Pettitte with HGH on two-to-four occasions in 2002. Pettitte later admitted using HGH. While MLB had no rules prohibiting HGH use at that time, it was illegal to use without a prescription.
In a 2008 affidavit, the Yankees pitcher said Roger Clemens had told him he had used HGH as well.
When pitcher Paul Byrd was accused of using human growth hormone to improve his baseball performance, he did not deny taking the drug. Instead, he justified it by revealing he had a tumor on his pituitary gland and saying that the drugs were part of his treatment.
Paul Lo Duca
Along with telling George Mitchell that he had sold steroids to Paul Lo Duca, Kirk Radomski produced three checks from Lo Duca as proof. Those checks added up to $3200.
Lo Duca additionally was accused of introducing players like Adam Riggs, Kevin Brown, Eric Gagne and Matt Herges to steroids.
While Curt Schilling has never been implicated in baseball's steroid scandal, in 2005 he was called to testify before a Congressional committee. Schilling has been a vocal opponent of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball and has called both for Jose Canseco's statistics to be erased and for Roger Clemens' Cy Young Awards to be stripped.
In Jose Canseco's infamous book "Juiced," he named former Texas Rangers teammate Rafael Palmeiro as a fellow steroids user. Canseco even claimed that he personally injected Palmeiro.
Under oath at a Congressional hearing in 2005, Palmeiro emphatically denied ever using steroids. Less than five months later, he was suspended for 10 days after testing positive for stanozolol. Still, the Congressional committee opted not to seek perjury charges against the first baseman.
When Gary Sheffield suffered ripped stitches from a knee surgery while working out with Barry Bonds in 2001, a trainer applied a cream to help it heal. It was later revealed that the cream included steroids. Sheffield repeatedly denied any knowledge about what the cream contained and pointed to statistical evidence proving it did not improve his numbers.
Sheffield was also mentioned in 2007's Mitchell Report.
Just days after signing a one-year, $10-million deal with the Milwaukee Brewers to become their new closer, Eric Gagne was identified in the Mitchell Report and accused of receiving human growth hormone from Kirk Radomski.
Gary Matthews Jr.
In February of 2007, Albany's Times Union newspaper broke the story about a steroid ring that spanned four states and involved a number of prominent clients. Gary Matthews Jr., who had hit for the cycle in 2006, was named as one of the people who allegedly purchased performance-enhancing drugs. His new team, the Los Angeles Angels, reportedly threatened to void his five-year, $50 million contract if he did not respond to the allegations, and Matthews subsequently denied the charges that he had used HGH.
When a major steroid ring was busted in March 2007, John Rocker's name was included on their client list. The pitcher subsequently admitted to using HGH, claiming it was for medical reasons, but he flatly denied receiving it from the pharmacy involved in the scandal.
Just hours after passing a physical exam for his new contact with the Kansas City Royals, Jose Guillen was hit with a 15-game suspension to be applied at the start of the 2008 season for reportedly buying nearly $20,000 worth of steroids and HGH from 2003 to 2005. That suspension was rescinded before the season began when all players implicated in the Mitchell Report were given amnesty.
After first denying claims that he had injected himself with steroids in 2003, Brian Roberts later admitted to using the performance-enhancing drugs just once. Roberts asserted that he immediately knew taking steroids did not fit with the standards to which he held himself and vowed it had never impacted his game.
When Rick Ankiel was called up to the major leagues as an outfielder in 2007, his became a feel-good story. Ankiel had started his baseball career as a pitcher but developed a major case of the yips in the playoffs during his rookie season and found himself unable to consistently throw strikes. He abandoned pitching in 2005 and worked his way up in the outfield.
Ankiel's story was tarnished, however, when he admitted to using HGH on doctor's orders after undergoing Tommy John surgery. Still, HGH was not banned by baseball at the time, and he was cleared of any wrongdoing by MLB officials.
When questioned for the Mitchell Report, although David Justice emphatically denied ever using performance-enhancing drugs himself, he was willing to name players he suspected of using. He did admit that he had no direct knowledge or proof of their steroid use, however. Justice's claims contradicted reports by Kirk Radomski and Brian McNamee that Radomski had provided Justice with HGH.
One of a number of players implicated as steroid users while competing for the Los Angeles Dodgers, Kevin Brown was in the Mitchell Report. Convicted steroids distributor Kirk Radomski presented an Express Mail receipt from 2004 that seemed to support his claims that he shipped something to Brown. Additional incriminating evidence against Brown was revealed from an internal note from a Dodgers executives meeting in which they wrote "Steroids suspected by GM."
When this information was released, LA Times sportswriter Bill Plaschke speculated that Brown's noted temper tantrums could have been due to "'roid rage."
In 2005, a former business partner sued Lenny Dykstra over his ownership stake in a car wash business. In lawsuit documents, the partner not only accused Dykstra of gambling on major league baseball games but also provided a sworn statement from a bodybuilder who claimed he had injected Dykstra with steroids many times.
Dykstra subsequently was included in the Mitchell Report. It reported that the Commissioner of Baseball's office had been aware of his use of performance-enhancing drugs since 2000.
Both Brian McNamee and Jason Grimsley fingered Chuck Knoblauch as a user of HGH, and the former second baseman was mentioned both in the Mitchell Report and in Grimsley's unsealed affidavit.
When a subpoena for Knoblauch was issued by a Congressional committee in late January 2008, federal marshals initially were unable to find him to deliver it. When he was tracked down, he agreed to give a deposition and the subpoena was withdrawn.
Plagued by injuries, Mo Vaughn didn't play a single game in the 2001 baseball season. It was because of that slow recovery that a trainer reportedly suggested he take HGH.
Kirk Radomski claimed he provided Vaughn with HGH kits and produced three checks signed by Vaughn to Senator George Mitchell as proof. Mitchell requested a meeting with Vaughn to discuss the allegations before the Mitchell Report was released, but Vaughn declined.
When Todd Hundley moved from the New York Mets to the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1999, he took the phone number for Kirk Radomski, who had provided him with anabolic steroids, with him. The catcher reportedly introduced new teammate Paul Lo Duca to Radomski, and Lo Duca subsequently introduced four other players.
Scott Schoeneweis' name was first publicly tied to the steroid scandal in a 2007 TV report. It claimed the pitcher had received six steroid shipments from 2003 to 2004. Schoenewis denied any knowledge of the pharmacy that had reportedly sent the drugs. In a later meeting with the Commissioner's office, Schoeneweis said he had used steroids to treat testicular cancer but that his teams were aware of the medical reasons for his use and that the levels used were within the limits established by the collective bargaining agreement. Officials determined there was insufficient evidence of a violation to warrant discipline.
In a 2006 newspaper interview, Jim Leyritz admitted that he had turned to HGH to help him recover from shoulder surgery in between the 2000 and 2001 seasons. That year he also admitted to using amphetamines as a pick-me-up after late nights out drinking with teammates.
Three months before the Mitchell Report was released in 2007, sources revealed that Troy Glaus, a former World Series MVP, had received nandrolone and testosterone through an illegal internet distribution network. Both substances were on MLB's banned list at the time. Glaus had received prescriptions for the drugs from a pharmacist who was on probation and was not allowed to do internet sales.
Glaus' name was included in the Mitchell Report.
In the Mitchell Report, Kirk Radomski stated that Fernando Vina had purchased anabolic steroids and HGH from him six-to-eight times from 2000 to 2005. Not only was Vina's contact information found in Radomski's address book, but Radomski also had three checks from Vina.
While Vina later admitted to using HGH in 2003 to aid his recovery from injuries, he denied using steroids and denied purchasing anything from Radomski.
Benito Santiago, a former catcher who competed for 10 teams from 1986 to 2005, is an admitted steroid and HGH user. During his testimony in front of the BALCO grand jury, he claimed he had received undetectable drugs from Greg Anderson.
His involvement in the steroid scandal was catalogued in Game of Shadows, the book written by two San Francisco Chronicle reporters.
Although Kirk Radomski claimed he had sold HGH to Mike Stanton twice in 2003, Stanton has firmly denied the accusations.